Interestingly, movement disorders can affect language processing in a highly specific, action-related manner.Individuals with motor neuron disease (MND) are reported, for instance, to have subtle difficulties in action understanding (Bak and Hodges, 2004).
Similarly, using a primed lexical decision task it was found that patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) had delayed responding to verbs, but not to other verbal material (Boulenger et al., 2008).However, research investigating the representation of action language and its comprehension has mainly relied on single words (e.g., verbs of action like kick, lick, pick, etc.) or affirmative sentences of such actions (John kicks the ball, etc.; e.g., Pulvermüller, 2004; Pulvermüller et al., 2005a,b; Tettamanti et al., 2005; Aziz-Zadeh et al., 2006; Ruschemeyer et al., 2007; Boulenger et al., 2009; Raposo et al., 2009).Participants were exposed to sentences in the affirmation and negation forms while the zygomatic muscle activity on the left side of the face was continuously measured (Electromyography technique: EMG).Sentences were descriptions of emotional expressions that mapped either directly upon the zygomatic muscle (e.g., “I am smiling”) or did not (e.g., “I am frowning”).The supportive evidence comes from behavioral (e.g., Zwaan and Taylor, 2006; Fischer and Zwaan, 2008), neurophysiological studies (e.g., Pulvermüller, 2004, 2005; Buccino et al., 2005; Pulvermüller et al., 2005a,b; Filimon et al., 2007—see Hauk et al., 2008, for a review), fine-grained movement-kinematic measures (Gentilucci and Gangitano, 1998; Glover and Dixon, 2002; Boulenger et al., 2006), and electromyographic analyses of facial muscles (e.g., Winkielman et al., 2008; Foroni and Semin, 2009, 2011).
Thus, evidence on the embodied grounding of meaning suggests that sensorimotor simulations of the content described by linguistic utterances are an essential component of language comprehension.As controls, we used sentences that are associated to a different facial muscle (e.g., I am frowning).We choose this particular focus because there is reliable evidence that the affirmative verbal representation of emotional expressions activates the corresponding facial muscles (e.g., Winkielman et al., 2008; Foroni and Semin, 2009).One of the reasons for this is probably to be found in the differences in experimental design and procedures (cf. These studies also differ in their focus on what comprehension constitutes (reading, listening) as well as they differ in the stimulus material.In particular, even though f MRI results furnish excellent information regarding the brain areas involved, their temporal resolution is poor.If you need supporting documentation for the application, please contact Headquarters at [email protected]