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These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.

Specially sanctioned messengers have been recognized in Vietnamese culture, among the Khasi people in India, and in the Fox and Winnebago cultures of the American midwest.

In thirteenth-century Florence, criers known as banditori arrived in the market regularly, to announce political news, to convoke public meetings, and to call the populace to arms.

These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation (forty) and where in the city they were to read them.These proclamations all used a standard format, beginning with an exordium—"The worshipful and most esteemed gentlemen of the Eight of Ward and Security of the city of Florence make it known, notify, and expressly command, to whosoever, of whatever status, rank, quality and condition"—and continuing with a statement (narratio), a request made upon the listeners (petitio), and the penalty to be exacted from those who would not comply (peroratio).Perception of these values has changed greatly over time as sensationalized 'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.Michael Schudson has argued that, before the era of World War I and the concommitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone actively correcting for it.News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past, even when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.

To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment.Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, laws, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times.Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information.Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny (from nový, "new"), the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, and Russian novosti — and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion (from newydd) and the Cornish nowodhow (from nowydh).Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, and to exclude discussion of the relationships between them.Gives profiles for regional courts of appeals and district courts, plus national totals and rankings.